System of government
Birth of the Republic
The road to Namibia’s Independence came through a long and protracted struggle for liberation by the people of Namibia led and organised through SWAPO and supported by the international community. As from April 1989, the United Nations Resolution 435 of 1978 was finally implemented paving the way for the UN-supervised November 1989 elections to create the Constituent Assembly, which in effect decided the legal basis of the Namibian State and its institutional structures.
The Constituent Assembly:
- Drafted the Constitution of the Republic of Namibia and adopted it on the 9th February 1990;
- Determined the date of Independence as 21 March 1990;
- Elected the President, His Excellency Dr. Sam Nujoma, who in turn appointed the first Cabinet.
- The Chairperson of the Constituent Assembly, Hon. Hage Geingob, was nominated by the President as the Prime Minister.
- The Constituent Assembly Members and the addition of six non-voting Members nominated by the President, constituted the first National Assembly.
- The voting Members of the National Assembly elected amongst them Hon. Dr. Mosè P. Tjitendero as the Speaker and Hon. Dr. Zephania Kameeta as the Deputy Speaker.
- After decades of oppression, war and several years of endless negotiations, Namibians had at last taken control of their country’s destiny and the Republic of Namibia was born on 21 March 1990.
The constitution promulgates a multiparty democracy with fundamental rights and freedoms, a mixed economy and states that foreign investment should be encouraged. It also follows the principle of a separation of powers and subject to checks and balances, whereby government is divided into three branches, the executive, the legislature and the judiciary.
Structure of Government
|H.E. President Hage Geingob
The President is the Head of State and Government. He or She is also the Commander-in-Chief of the Namibian Defence Force. Executive power is vested in the President and Cabinet. He or she is elected by a popular vote for a term of five years with a maximum of two terms and signs the bills passed by both houses of the legislature into law.
Current Cabinet (2015)
The current Cabinet was announced on 19 March 2015. For the first time, there are ministries with two Deputy Ministers, significantly enlarging the Cabinet
- President: Hage Geingob
- Prime Minister: Saara Kuugongelwa-Amadhila
- Minister of Veteran Affairs and Marginalised People: Nickey Iyambo
- Minister in the Presidency in charge of the National Planning Commission: Tom Alweendo
- Minister of Presidential Affairs: Frans Kapofi
- Minister of International Relations and Cooperation: Netumbo Nandi-Ndaitwah
- Minister of Finance: Calle Schlettwein
- Minister of Defence: Penda ya Ndakolo
- Minister of Home Affairs and Immigration: Pendukeni Iivula-Ithana
- Minister of Higher Education, Training and Innovation: Itah Murangi-Kandjii
- Minister of Education, Arts and Culture: Katrina Hanse-Himarwa
- Minister of Industrialisation, Trade and SME Development: Immanuel Ngatjizeko
- Minister of Urban and Rural Development: Sophia Shaningwa
- Minister of Poverty Eradication and Social Welfare: Bishop Zephania Kameeta
- Minister of Health and Social Services: Berhard Haufiku
- Minister of Works and Transport: Alpheus ǃNaruseb
- Deputy: Sankwasa James Sankwasa
- Deputy: Kilus Nguvauva
- Minister of Safety and Security: Charles Namoloh
- Minister of Agriculture, Water and Forestry: John Mutorwa
- Minister of Land Reform: Uutoni Nujoma
- Deputy: Clinton Swartbooi
- Minister of Information and Communication Technology: Tjekero Tweya
- Minister of Gender Equality and Child Welfare: Doreen Sioka
- Minister of Justice: Albert Kawana
- Minister of Labour, Industrial Relations and Employment Creation: Erkki Nghimtina
- Minister of Fisheries and Marine Resources: Bernhard Esau
- Minister of Mines and Energy: Obed Kandjoze
- Deputy: Kornelia Shilunga
- Minister of Environment and Tourism: Pohamba Shifeta
- Deputy: Tommy Nambahu
- Deputy: Priscilla Beukes
- Minister of Sport, Youth and National Service: Jerry Ekandjo
- Minister of Public Enterprises: Leon Jooste
Namibia has a bicameral legislature consisting of the National Assembly and the National Council.
The 72 voting member National Assembly is elected for a term of five years on the basis of proportional representation and “Westminster-type” rules apply to the procedures of the house. The President appoints an additional six non-voting members.
The National Council was formed in accordance with chapter eight of the Namibian Constitution, on February 1993, after the regional elections held in November 1992. The Council is made up of 2 representatives, elected every six years, drawn from the 13 Regional Councils. It reviews legislation proposed by the National Assembly and refers bills back or suggests amendments before they receive presidential assent and become law.
The judiciary includes the Supreme Court (headed by the Chief Justice), the High Court (headed by the Judge President) and the Lower Courts. All the courts are independent and subject only to the Constitution. Judges are appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Judicial Service Commission.